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Glazes

"Raku Frequently Asked Questions"

(1)

Didn't Paul Soldner invent raku?

Not exactly. Soldner is an innovator and one of a few responsible for popularizing raku in this country beginning in the 1950's. Raku was first developed by Korean potters under Japanese rule in the 17th century.

The circumstances that led to its launch and spread are somewhat of a mystery though.


(2)

How do pit, sawdust, smoke firing, and raku differ?

These types of firings are often confused with each other because they can share some similar characteristics. Briefly, raku ware is fired in a more or less conventional type kiln where glaze technology is understood and utilized.

The others are forms of primitive firing where temperatures reached are generally lower and glazes are not commonly used. In primitive firings, the "kiln" may consist of a simple hole in the ground (ie, a pit).


(3)

Isn't raku a once-fire process where you don't have to bisque first?

Raku firing greenware is a sure way to line the bottom of your kiln with shards. Always bisque-fire to at least Cone 08 before glazing and raku firing.


(4)

Is raku suitable for functional use?

The traditional use of raku ware in the Japanese tea ceremony has contributed to confusion about the functional use of raku. With very few exceptions, all raku fired ware is fragile, porous, and generally unsuitable for functional use. Unless such fragile ware is treated post-firing with a non-glaze material, such as a polyurethane or acrylic sealer or an oil of some kind, the pots will sweat water and eventually breakdown. Treat raku as decorative. The occasional use of raku in a functional setting is OK but keep in mind that the glaze is soft and can be easily chipped and end up being ingested. If you must use your pots for food try to limit the use to dry food. The fragility of the ware also renders the reliability of handles and other appendages extremely questionable.


(5)

What constitutes a raku clay?

A raku clay is any clay that can be successfully raku fired. That includes most any type of clay out there! As I say at my workshops; "I've never met a clay that I couldn't raku." Generally though, a clay suitable for raku needs to contain a lot of fireclay and similar refractory materials so that it can withstand the sudden heat shock of the raku process. This includes most stock stoneware clays. The clay does not have to be loaded with coarse grog but it does have to be open enough to expand and contract without cracking. Most clay suppliers can help you choose an appropriate claybody. The other characteristics that you are looking for are your personal ones such as plasticity, color, texture, etc. Nothing needs to be sacrificed in order to have a good, reliable raku clay.


(6)

What is a raku glaze?

Similar to the question of raku clays is the answer to this question. Any glaze that you can successfully raku fire is a raku glaze. The most important factors in identifying raku glazes is the temperature at which they mature, how you plan on using them, and what kind of effects you are looking for. You must also keep in mind that if you are using a variety of glazes on the same pot or in the same kiln load, unless you know that they all mature to your satisfaction at around the same temperature, you will be faced with varying degrees of maturity. However, just because a glaze is formulated to fire at a temperature higher than your usual range doesn't mean that you should eliminate that glaze from your pallet. Experiment with your glazes to achieve a variety of surface effects from dry textures to surfaces with a high gloss. Don't limit yourself to homemade or personal glazes either. Try low fire commercial glazes for some unusual results


(7)

Which cones do I use in raku?

The only cones that should be used near a raku kiln are ice cream cones. Because of the fast firing, varying atmosphere, multiple loads and other factors, pyrometric cones are generally poor indicators of heat and temperature so they are not used. Most raku potters fire their wares using the actual glaze melt as the visual indicator of maturity. Many potters, however, do use pyrometers or cones to warn of coming glaze maturity and then check the ware visually through the peephole(s). It takes some temperature of raku depends on the glazes that you are using. Most raku is fired in the range of cone 010-06. You must remember though that you as the maker of the pots are the final expert on whether a glaze is mature, underfired, or overfired. If a glaze is not glossy enough, doesn't have the expected crackles or metallic effects, or doesn't exhibit any other characteristic that you find desirable, you need to adjust the firing.


(8)

How do you get those bright metallic effects? Sometimes my glazes don't crackle as much as I like. What can I do?

Assuming you are using the correct glazes, both metallic effects and dark crackle lines are a result of firing the glazes to their maximum maturity followed by a fast post-firing reduction technique. You must quickly get your pot from the kiln to the reduction container and covered before the pot has a chance to cool too much, otherwise the post-firing reduction will not be effective. Pronounced crackle effects are also often dependent on a thick application of glaze.


(9)

All I ever get are bright metallic effects. How do I get more colorful glaze effects?

This is the exact opposite of the previous question and problem. Brighter colors need a degree of post firing oxidation in order to develop. There are several ways to achieve this. When you remove the ware from the kiln, spray the areas with water where you would like more color to develop before placing the ware in the reduction container. This will oxidize and cool the glaze. Another method is to hold the ware in the air for 10 - 30 seconds before reducing the ware. Allow the combustable material to ignite and cover the container only after flames have clearly developed. Other potters will uncover the reduction container after a short time allowing the material to ignite again while fanning the ware. Using these and other similar techniques you will learn how to control the amount of metallic and colorful effects on your wares as well as grey to black unglazed areas.


(10)

Can I preheat my pots in the kiln as it is warming up (starting w/a cold kiln). I will be using a fiber garbage can kiln
with a lift-off lid, not one where the entire kiln lifts off. I don't see how my pots will get preheated enough by just
setting them on the lid. Do they get hot enough on a fiber/expanded metal lid?


This question shows a common misunderstanding about the raku process. The only time you need to be concerned about preheating your ware is when you are doing multiple firing loads in the same kiln. The first load should always be in a cold kiln taking the temperature up slowly. Only if you are going to fire additional loads should you be preheating your pots on or along-side the kiln. If the lid of the kiln is a wire mesh/fiber lid then you might get enough radiant heat. Place the pots near the flue opening so they get the heat coming from the draft. Be careful not to place them too close, too soon, or they may break. After preheating on top of the kiln you can place the pieces around the base of the kiln after you remove the fiber chamber, let them heat up there for a minute or two, then put them on the kiln shelf letting them sit for another minute, then put the chamber back in place for a minute, then re-light the burner.


(11)

Must I use a certain type of kiln or can I fire raku in an electric kiln?

Most any type of kiln can be used for raku as long as it meets certain requirements of the raku process. It must be located outdoors or in close proximity to the outdoors. You must be able to easily reach into the kiln to remove your ware. If you are going to be firing multiple loads the temperature of the kiln must be easily controlled. An electric kiln is perfectly suitable for raku although there are some special considerations that require careful attention. You must remember that you are exposing yourself to live electrical current when you open an electric kiln so you must protect yourself from any possible contact with the current. There'll be more on this in a subsequent revision of this FAQ.


12)

When it comes to kilns I've heard the terms flue, damper, stack, and chimney. How do they apply to raku kilns?

All fuel fired kilns need some way for the gases to exit, the air flow to be controlled, and air to enter the chamber. Conventional kilns have a flue, damper, and stack (or chimney). The flue is a path in the kiln for the gases to move through after they have circulated through the kiln on their way to the stack. The damper is a device, usually a kiln shelf, that slides in and out of the lower part of the stack in order to control the size of the opening, thus controlling the exit of the gases and their mixture with air. Raku kilns are generally small and overpowered. Most have a simple opening in the top of the chamber covered by a kiln shelf shard. The kiln chamber chamber is essentially the stack with the opening the flue and the kiln shelf the damper.


(13)

Why can't I reach temperature no matter how much gas I use?

This is the most common question regarding the raku firing. Successful rise of temperature in any fuel-fired kiln depends on the correct mixture of air and fuel. A hotter kiln is not necessarily dependent on more fuel! If there is too much fuel, the atmosphere will be smoky, full of flames and the temperature will not rise. Also, if there is too much air, the temperature will stagnate or fall. Usually, the solution to a situation in which the kiln doesn't reach temperature is to increase the air in the air/fuel mixture. In a gas-fired kiln this can be done by increasing the available air in the burner or around the burner. You can also simply open the flue (the opening at the top of the kiln). Most potters use a venturi type burner that has a disk that screws open or closed. Open it for more air. If you are using a power burner in which a fan is attached, increase the air flow. Experiment to arrive at the correct mixture but be patient!


(14)

Don't the tongs used to lift the pots leave marks?

Sometimes they do. More often though the glaze is still molten enough that once the pot is released from the tongs, the marks tend to smooth out. In either case the tong marks should not be treated as defects but rather as characteristics of raku.


(15)

I'm confused about the term reduction. Can you explain what this means?

Reduction is a firing term that refers to a lack of oxygen in the combustion process. This lack of oxygen causes the fuel to search for free oxygen to allow for more complete combustion to take place. This can take place during a firing as in reduction stoneware. In this conventional situation, the additional oxygen is gotten from the clay body and glazes, resulting in their characteristic effects. Reduction as it is referred to in raku usually takes place out of the kiln separate from the actual firing as described earlier. However, just because you are doing raku doesn't mean that you can't experiment with actual reduction firing in the more conventional sense.


(16)

Must I remove my ware from the kiln to apply post firing reduction or can I insert reduction material into the kiln chamber?

As described earlier, post firing reduction is normally done by removing the ware from the kiln and placing it in a container with your combustable material. Certain situations may make it difficult to actually remove the wares from the kiln while they are hot. For instance your piece may be too large or awkward to handle. In this case you can achieve some post firing success by shuting off the kiln, adding your reduction material to the chamber, and closing off all open ports including the flue, peep hole, and burner ports. At best, the chamber will be only marginally sealed and since effective reduction depends on on air tight chamber, your reduction will be only partially successful. If your kiln is a lift off fiber type then you might try removing it and replacing it with a metal drum or can for the reduction phase.


(17)

Do different types of reduction material give different effects?

The short answer is yes. The long answer is much more complicated! Here is a medium answer: Your reduction effects are certainly influenced by how much carbon is in the atmosphere that surrounds your pot. In other words, how much smoke your pot is quickly subjected to. Some materials have the potential to release more carbon than others. The condition of your material (wet, damp, dry) as well as the particle size as in the case of wood materials (sawdust, shavings, chips) can be important. The type of wood can also affect your results.


(18)

Must there be clouds of smoke when doing raku?

Raku doesn't require smoke at all. There are two aspects of the process that have the potential for creating smoke. If you are using a fuel fired kiln (as opposed to an electric kiln) then it is likely that there will be at least some smoke generated during the firing. If you are doing post firing reduction, there will be smoke created then as well. The amount of smoke is determined by the efficiency of your reduction technique, the material you are using, and the amount of material you are using. If you are reducing in a container, the tighter the lid fits, the less smoke will exit the container. There are other techniques of reduction that create less smoke than others. Of course if you are not doing post firing reduction and simply cooling your ware when it comes from the kiln, then there is no smoke created.


(19)

What is smokeless raku?

Smokeless raku is not really smokeless at all. The term was coined by Jerry Caplan who has been developing his techniques for many years. It is a post firing reduction technique that is designed to produce minimal smoke by keeping the reduction chamber as air tight as possible. This can be done using a combination of tight fitting lids with gaskets of wet paper or cloth. The tightest chamber is one made by inverting your container onto a bed of sand or dirt. Arrange a ring of sand or dirt on the ground for the lid of your container to fit onto when placed upside down. Place your reduction material within the ring. Quickly place your ware onto the material and cover it with the container pushing the rim of the container into the sand. Bury the rim with additional sand to keep the smoke in.


(20)

What is meant by slip resist in raku?

Slip resist refers to a variety of techniques whereby a clay slip is applied to the surface of the ware. This slip is formulated to peel away during the firing, and not permanently adhere to the surface. As the slip peels, shrinks, and separates from the surface it exposes the ware to varying degrees of post firing reduction. When the piece is cooled, whatever slips remains on the pot is removed by scraping and cleaning. As a further decorative process, you can scratch and draw through the slip creating designs.


Compiled 5/31/96 by Steven Branfman (sbranfpots@aol.com) Author, Raku A Practical Approach, Second Edition and The Potters Professional Handbook.
The Potters Shop 31 Thorpe Rd. Needham MA 02494 (phone 781 449 7687)
Revised 9/02 - COPYRIGHT (C) 1996. All rights reserved. Contact the author for permission to issue a copy in any form.
The Art Collector


"Raku Glazes"


"I do NOT use LEAD in any of my current glazes". . .

( RAKU Ware is an art form and to be used for "Decorative Use Only" )

These glazes are adaptations of recipe's that are from the 1960's, 1970's and 1980's, by various POTTERS.
These glazes were given to me by Crispin Gonzalez, in my early years at Chaffey College.


Raku Slip - Dry White-Grey. Fluxes slightly under oxides
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kaolin 20
Gerstley Borate 20

Pabst Yellow Raku - On interiors it goes to a patchy olive lustre. 7
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kaolin 15
Gerstley Borate 45

Hamm's Raku - Bright yellow / rich copper lustre, greens, mattish yellow, if reduced. Matted olive brown (thick semi-reduced).
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kaolin 7
Gerstley Borate 21
Antimony 4
Copper 0.5

Hank's Raku - White slightly transparent
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Gerstley Borate 55 %
Lowfire Ball Clay 20 %
Lithium 15 %
EPK 5 %
T1 5 %

Hank's Raku Slip.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Low Fire Body 80
Zircopax 5
Gerstley Borate 5

Benny's Egyptian Paste - BlueGreen, breaking to CopperReds.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Soda Feldspar 39.0
Silica 39.0
Ball Clay 12.0
Soda Ash 6.0
Bicarbonate of Soda 6.0
Copper Carbonate 30.0

Benny's Raku Slip.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Delmont Spar (Feldspar) 50.0
Silica 50.0
Ball Clay 10.0
Soda Ash 20.0
Bicarbonate of Soda 6.0
Copper Carbonate 30.0

Burnt Red Raku - Over fired, burnt yellow.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 164
Whiting 24.5
Kaolin 38.5
Zinc Oxide 9.5
Silica 100
Tin Oxide 20.2
Red Iron Oxide 13.5

Forrest Green Glossy Raku
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Whiting 47.5
Borax 103
Soda Ash 4.0
White Lead 77
Potash Feldspar 107.5
Silica 51
Kaolin 2.0
Tin Oxide 37
Copper Carbonate 13.7

Raku White
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Soda Ash 50
Delmonte Feldspar 50

Raku RM #2 - cone^08 - ^06 (D Nichols)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 305
Frit 3304 90
Silica 105
Tin 25

Raku RM #3 cone ^08 - ^06 (D Nichols)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 66
Silica 30
Kaolin 4

Raku RM #4 - (Nichols) cone^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
BoroSilica Frit 50
Ball Clay 10
Silica 10
Zircopax 5

Raku RM #5 - (Nichols) - cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White lead 55
Silica 25
Spar 10
Ball 5
Whiting 5

Raku RM #6 - (Nichols) cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Copper Carbonate 4.5
White Lead 38
Frit 50
Silica 7.5

Raku RM #7 Grape Purple - (Nichols) cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Manganese Oxide 8
White Lead 42
Frit 42
Silica 2

Raku RM #8 Bright Iron Red - (Nichols) cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Red Iron Oxide 20
White Lead 20
Frit 60

Raku RM # 9 Yellow (for bright Yellow, add 5% iron oxide or lead chromate - (Nichols) cone ^08 -^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White lead 30
Antimony Oxide 8
Frit 46
Silica 16

Raku RM # 10 Black fragments under Green - (Nichols) - cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Manganese Oxide 70
Cobalt Oxide 10
Silica 20

Raku RM # 11 - (Nichols) - cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 50
Silica 39
Calcinated Borax 11

Raku RM # 12 - (Nichols) - cone ^08 - ^06.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 40
Frit 45
Silica 8
Copper Carbonate 3

Deanna's White Opaque Raku (for Black Opaque add 3% iron oxide, 2% cobalt oxide & 2% copper oxide.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3304 800
Borax 100
EPK 50
Gerstley Borate 50
Tin Oxide 8

Deanna's Clear Glossy Raku (add 1 1/2 % Bentonite to formula)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 68
Silica 20
EPK 10
Soda Ash 2

Bonnie's Raku - (plastic vitrox - local low fire clay)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lead 60
Gerstley Borate 20
Plastic Vitrox (P.U.) 20
Antimony 4
Copper 0.5

Blueish Raku (also smoky blue with copper wash and heavy reduction).
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Gerstley Borate 80
Neph. Seyenite 20

Ralph's Yellow Raku
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 80
Zircopax 10
Kaolin 10

White Matt Raku (deJarnette)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 52.4
Zinc Oxide 4
Feldspar 31.8
Kaolin 4.9
Ball Clay 4.5
Silica 2.4
Tin Oxide 10

No. Six Raku Orange (you can increase Selenium to 2 or 2.5)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Westwood Frit G 625 50
Westwood E 421 (Selenium) 1.5
Westwood E 436 (Cadnium Yellow) 1.5

No. Four Red Raku
MINERAL BY VOLUME
S. Paul Ward Ferro Frit # 5301 50
S.P.W. C810 Cadnium Red 2.5

No. Five Richer Red Marroon Raku
MINERAL BY VOLUME
S.P.W. 5301 Frit 50
Westwood E 4211 Selenium 2

Some RAKU glazes by Gary Ferguson

Alligator - Copper Matte
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 8 units
Bone Ash 2 units
Copper Carbonate 1/2 unit
Cobalt Oxide 1/4 unit
Optional: Cobalt Carbonate 2%

Alligator II - Copper Matte
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 4 units
Bone Ash 2 units
Copper Carbonate 1 unit
Nepheline Syenite 1 unit

Alkaline Blue - Torquoise where thick, Yellow where thin
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3110 70 units
Gerstley Borate 5 units
Silica 10 units
Soda Ash 10 unit
EPK 5 unit
Copper Carbonate 3 units

Alkaline Blue II
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3134 60 units
Soda Ash 30 units
Whiting 5 units
EPK 5 units
Copper Carbonate 3 units

Barium White
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 99 units
G-200 20 units
Silica 19 unit
Ball Clay (OM-4) 10 units
Barium Carbonate 10 units

Barium White Crackle - ^08
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 60 units
K-200 50 units
Barium Carbonate 22 units
Silica 16 units

Basic White Crackle - Apply thick to get bright opaque white
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 65 units
Tennesee Ball Clay 5 units
Nepheline Syenite 15 unit
Tin Oxide 10 units
Silica 5 units

Beads - Matte
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 31.25 units
Borax 25 units
Magnesium Carbonate 31.25 unit
Silica 6.25 units
Zircopax 6.25 units

Black Gloss
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Borax 10 units
Gersley Borate 40 units
Soda Ash 20 units
Nepheline Syenite 10 units
Barnard Clay 10 units
Cobalt Carbonate 4 units
Copper Carbonate 2 units

Black Raku
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Soda Ash 21 1\2 units
Gerstley Borate 43 1\8 units
Nepheline Syenite 10 3\4 units
Barnarde Clay 18 5\8 units
Cobalt Carbonate 3 7\8 units
Copper Carbonate 2 units

Blue Black Purple
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 50 units
Nepheline Syenite 50 units
Rutile 50 units
Cobalt Corbonate 4 units
Copper Carbonate 2 units

Blue Crackle - Gloss, Dark Blue, small crackle
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 80 units
Cornwall Stone 20 units
Cobalt Carbonate 6 units

Blue Velvet
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 30 units
Nepheline Syenite 10 units
Aluminia Oxide 20 units
Cobalt Carbonate 20 units
Rutile 20 units

Bob's Copper Red
MINERAL BY VOLUME
G-200 Feldspar 25 1\2 units
Gerstley Borate 59 1\4 units
Frit 3110 8 1\5 units
Black Copper Carbonate 6 3\4 units

Candy Luster Glaze - ^06
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 70 units
Cornwall Stone 30 units
Tin Oxide 1\2 unit
Cobalt Carbonate 1\4 unit
Copper Carbonate 1 1\2 units

Carbon
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 24 1\4 units
Magnesium Carbonate 12 1\8 units
Borax 32 3\8 unit
Rutile 12 1\8 units
Red Iron Oxide 16 1\8 units
Cobalt Oxide 2 7\8 units

Clear Crackle - Basic Crackle
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 65 units
Nepheline Syenite 20 units
EPK (Kaolin) 5 units
Silica 10 units

Copper Blue
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3110 70 units
Gerstley Borate 7 units
Silica(Silica) 10 units
Soda Ash 10 unit
EPK (Kaolin) 5 unit
Copper Carbonate 3 units

Copper Blue / Bronze Raku
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Borax 3 units
Gerstley Borate 41 1\4 units
Nepheline Syenite 41 1\4 units
Kona F-4 Feldspar 14 3\8 units
Copper Carbonate 3 units

Copper Crush
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 30 units
Potash Feldspar 20 units
Nepheline Syenite 50 units
Nickle Oxide 1 unit
Copper Carbonate 10 units

Copper Luster - Apply Thin. Dark Cranberry
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 80 units
Nepheline Syenite 20 units
Cobalt Oxide 1 unit
Copper Oxide 2 units
Yellow Ocher 7 3\4 units

Copper Luste II - Reduce in sawdust
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 80 units
Cornwall Stone 20 units
Copper Carbonate 3 units
Red Iron Oxide 1 unit

Copper Stain - Apply, wipe off with sponge leaving stain in crevice. Coat with Piepenburg clear.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3110 (Ferro) 10 units
Copper Carbonate 90 units

Crusty Lusty
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 8 units
Bone Ash 2 units
Copper Carbonate 1\2 unit
Cobalt Oxide 1\4 unit

Del Favero Luster - Gloss, Turquoise, turns copper penny luster under strong redction.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 80 units
Cornwall Stone 20 units
Copper Carbonate 2 units

Dragon Fly
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 3134 45 units
Gerstley Borate 40 units
EPK 8 units
Silica 7 units
Copper Carbonate 6 units

Dry Alligator -Matte
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 44 1\4 units
Nepheline Borate 10 units
Bone Ash 19 3\4 units
Copper Carbonate 10 units

Egg Shell Blue - Mottled blue to gold orange peel.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Granular Borax 960 units
Gerstley Borate 960 units
Red Iron Oxide 10 units
Copper Carbonate 20 units
Cobalt Carbonate 30 units

Ferguson Blue
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 5 units
Frit 3110 70 units
Silica 10 units
Soda Ash 10 units
Kaolin 5 units
Copper Carbonate 3 units


Low Fire ^08 to ^06 Glaze Recipes

These glazes are adaptations of recipe's that are from the1960's, 1970's and 1980's, and were given to me by Crispin Gonzalez in my early years at Chaffey College.
Thus many of these glazes are "Lead Based", and should only be used for non functional ware and for decoration only....( non-leaded frits  should be substituted when glazing functional ware ).

^06 Base Glaze & Colour - by Ray Bub



^06 Glossy Clear Base Glaze
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Frit 3124 (Ferro) 85 %
Edgar Plastic Kaolin 15 %

Opaque White
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 16%

Opaque Pink
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason Stain 6001 6 %

Opaque Purple
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6331 5%

Opaque Red-rimson
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6003 5%

Opaque Yellow
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6450 5%

Translucent Orange-Mustard
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Lite Tone Rutile 10%
Mason stain 6450 5%

Opaque Lite Green
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6271 1%

Translucent Lite Green
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Mason Stain 6271 2%
Black Mason Stain 6600 0.5%

Opaque Pale Blue
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6364 3%

Opaque Medium Blue
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Zircopax 11%
Mason stain 6313 1%

Translucent Dark Blue
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Mason Stain 6386 1%

Translucent Brown
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Iron Oxide 2%

Black
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Glossy Clear Base Glaze 100%
Mason stain 6600 8%

^07 Glaze

Pine Red - Cone ^07
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 75.5
Neph. Syenite 15.0
Kaolin 4.0
Silica 5.0
Black/Orange Uranium 22.5
Bentonite 1.0

Aventurine - Cone ^07 -^04
Heavy application gives sparkling effect.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Raw Borax 71.7
Red Iron Oxide 17.07
Silica 35.7
Copper Oxide 0.02
Cobalt Oxide 0.05


Lead free Frits

Laguna Clay sells a variety of frits by Ferro. Frits are produced from various combinations of raw materials that are fused into a vitreous or semi-vitreous substance. Depending on the firing temperature and the desired results, frits may be used as a major component or a minor additive in glaze production.

The use of frits also allows for the incorporation of certain raw materials in creation of glazes. Some materials, which alone could be hazarous, become safer components when fritted. Recognized benifits of frit include the ability to fire at a lower temperature, the creation of a homogenous and a more consistent result.

Frits are glaze materials which have been melted, cooled and ground into a powder which is then added to the glaze formula for the purpose of rendering insoluble any soluble material present.

Other frits manufactured by Pemco, Fusion or General Color may be ordered from Laguna Clay or other suppliers (check your local area).

(Substitute non-leaded frits for lead based frits when glazing functional ware).

PRODUCT
DESCRIPTION
MELT RANGE (F)
CC-250 Basic clear at Cone 06. Used as a flux at higher temperatures. Add other raw materials for various effects. 1500F
CC-257 Fritted source of barium. used from Cone 06 to Cone 1 with CC-265 for satins. Used as partial additive. 1700F
CC-263 Well balanced Cone 02 to Cone 1. Clear 1650F
CC-265 Fritted source of calcium. Used with other frits, Cone 06 to Cone 1 for satins as well as chrome-tin colors. 1500F
CC-270 Ahigh expansion frit. Cone 06 to Cone 04. 1400F
CC-274 Good for colors. Cone 04 to Cone 02 1800F
CC-279 Clear. Cone 06 to Cone 04. 1450F
CM-942 Red leadless cadnium, underglaze mix; complete by itself. Works well with CM-944 to produce oranges. Cone 06. 1750F
CM-943 Yellow leadless cadnium, underglaze mix. 1750F
CZ-108 High zircon, good for Cone 06 white glazes. 1600F
CZ-111 Zircon frit. Used as zircon white with other frits or minerals. Cone 1 to Cone 4. 2150F
FA-233 Balanced zircon, opacified frit for Cone 06 to Cone 01. A white frit for white opaque glazes 1650F
FB-268-D Zircon lead free frit 1750F
FB-276-P Well balanced clear frit for colors at Cone 06. 1650F
FB-284-M 3289 with zircon to decrease solubility. Barium source used for bright colors at Cone 05 to Cone 03. 1500F
3110 A high calcium/sodium, low alumina frit for Cone 06. Often used in crystal glazes. High expansion. 1600F
3124 Used with other frits and raw materials at Cone 06 to Cone 01. 1600F
3134 Calcium Borate source used with other frits for low cost pottery glazes fron Cone 06 to Cone 01. 1450F
3195 Very fluid, clear Cone 06 frit. 1500F
3225 Low coefficent of expansion. Cone 04 1650F
3249 This frit formulation includes magnesium and is good to control crazing in amounts of 3% to 10%. Very low COE. 1900F
3269 Crackle frit, clear and used from Cone 06 to Cone 03. Can be used alone or as an additive to glaze. 1400F
3270 Good Cone 06 to Cone 04 for many colors - particularly good for cobalt. 1500F
3278 Similar to 3134 above but melts at a lower temperature. 1400F
3292 A balanced frit to be used in glazes from Cone 1 to Cone 4 1650F
3336 Zircon frit used from Cone 04 to Cone 5. 1850F
3846 Antimony opacified, high expansion frit. 1450F
3851 Extremely high fire Cone 10 frit with very low coeficient of expansion. 2400F
5301 For high expansion crackle glazes fired at Cone 06. 1500F


Stoneware Glazes

These glazes are adaptations of recipe's that are from the1960's, 1970's and 1980's, and were given to me by Crispin Gonzalez in my early years at Chaffey College. Thus many of these glazes are "Lead Based", and should only be used for non functional ware and for decoration only....( non-leaded frits  should be substituted when glazing functional ware ).


Clear Lead (Rhodes) - Cone ^04
An excellent glaze for use over slip decoration.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 45.9%
Oxford Spar 31.3%
China Clay 3.0%
Talc 1.8%
Silica 11.9%
Whiting 6.0%

Barium Matt - Cone ^04
A very stiff matt glaze, should be applied thinly.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 43.2%
Barium Carbonate 11.0%
Oxford Spar 39.2%
China Clay 2.1%
Silica 4.4%

Lead Gerstley Borate - Cone ^04
A smooth semi opaque glaze.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White lead 29.9%
Gerstley Borate 6.0%
Whiting 7.8%
Zinc Oxide 1.0%
Oxford Spar 30.4%
China Clay 6.5%
Silica 18.4%

Gerstley Borate Barium Matt - Cone ^04
A smooth frosty semi opaque glaze.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 46.8%
Silica 10.0%
Gerstley Borate 11.0%
Whiting 13.0%
Barium Carbonate 13.0%
Zinc Oxide 4.0%

Transparent Lead - Cone ^04
A smooth clear glaze, good over slips or over colors.
Add 5% Tin Oxide to make it opaque white.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 52.1%
Oxford Spar 20.3%
Silica 18.7%
China Clay 3.0%
Whiting 5.8%

Semi Opaque Lead - Cone ^04
Smooth and Bright.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 21.7%
China Clay 3.2%
Silica 15.4%
White Lead 40.0%
Whiting 4.6%
Barium Carbonate 15.2%

High Alumina Lead - Cone ^04
Semi matt and opaque.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 44.8%
Oxford Spar 40.7%
Silica 2.8%
China Clay 6.0%
Whiting 5.8%

High Lime Semi Opaque - Cone ^04
Dull surface, opaque when thick and will reveal slips and under glazes when thin.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 38.8%
Oxford Spar 42.3%
Silica 5.4%
China Clay 4.6%
Whiting 7.5%
Magnesium Carbonate 1.3%

Oxidation Scratchy Matt - (deJarette) - Cone ^04
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxide Spar 46.8%
Silica 10.0%
Gerstley Borate 11.0%
Whiting 13.0%
Barium Carbonate 13.0%
Zinc Oxide 4.0%

Bright Warm Red - Cone ^04
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 66.6%
Neph. Syenite 16.8%
Zinc Oxide 1.9%
Silica 14.7%
Black/Orange Uranium 22.5%
Bentonite 1.0%

Some cone ^04 glazes by Trevor Youngberg
Base Glaze #1- Cone ^04
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Ferro Frit #3124 75%
China Clay 15%
Silica 10 %

Add to Base Glaze #1 - Celadon
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #1 100%
Copper Carbonate 7.50%
Ilmenite 0.75%

Add to Base Glaze #1 - Vanadium Blue
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #1 100%
Vanadium Pentoxide 5.00%
Cobalt Carbonate 0.12%

Base Glaze #2 - Cone ^04
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Ferro Frit #3195 88.24%
EPK 11.76%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Cobalt Blue
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
Cobalt Oxide 1.47%
Titanium Dioxide 4.90%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Emerald Green
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
Copper Oxide 1.47%
Titanium Dioxide 4.90%
Black Nickel 0.49%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Sable
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
Manganese Carbonate 0.98%
Titanium Dioxide 4.90%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Snow White
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
Tin Oxide 4.90%
Spanish Red Iron Oxide 2.94%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Spanish Rust
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
Spanish Red Iron Oxide 4.90%

Add to Base Glaze #2 - Temmoku
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Base Glaze #2 100%
RIO 1.47%
Ilmenite 3.00%

Lead Gerstley Borate - Cone ^04 to ^01
Thin, almost transparent red - Thick, Grayish opaque.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lead Carb. 129
Gerstley Borate 62
Ball Clay 39
Silica 70
Tin 15

Lead 2C - Cone 04^to ^01
Creamy white, good with oxides, especially iron.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lead Carb. 178
Gertsley Borate 41
Ball Clay 39
Silica 138
Opax 20

Lead Gerstley Borate 12K - Cone ^04 to ^01
Smooth white opaque, semi matt @ ^04, slightly rough & pebbly @ higher temp.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 62
Lead Carbonate 65
Ball Clay 52
Silica 90
Opax 27

Lead Gerstley Borate 10K - Cone^04 to ^01
Yellow shiny opaque @ ^04, richer variation @ ^01.
Transparent when thin, orange-yellow matt when heavy, Iron gives brown.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 62
Lead Carbonate 65
Ball Clay 52
Flint 90
Rutile 27

Gerstley Borate 41- Cone ^04
Shiny white opaque, takes all oxides & best in electric kiln.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 83
Ball Clay 39
Silica 90
Opax 11

Gerstley Borate 21- Cone ^01
Clear transparent with milky spots.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 83
Ball Clay 39
Silica 90

Gerstley Borate-Magnesia-Zinc 3N - Cone^01
White dry matt, Heavy copper turns gunmetal, best in electric. Add 8% Manganese Dioxide for purplish matt.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Gerstley Borate 42
Magnesium Carb. 17
Zinc Oxide 24
Ball Clay 52
Silica 90

Reduction John Arnold Cement (deJarnette) - Cone ^3
Mottlied green & yellow. 5% iron oxide gives yellow mottlied.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Portland Cement 29.3
Frit 25 57.6
Silica 13.1

Crystaling (oxidation) (deJarnet) - Cone^3
Add colorant.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lithium Carbonate 41.8
Kaolin 7.4
Silica 50.8

Oxidation White (deJarnette) - Cone ^3.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Frit 704 225
Magnesium 75
Feldspar 37
Kaolin 37

Carlton Ball Oxidation (deJarnette) - Cone ^3 to ^6
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 44
Silica 24
Ball Clay 1
Gerstley Borate 20
Whiting 2
Zinc Oxide 3
Barium Carbonate 6

Gerstley Borate (Rhodes) Cone ^4 to ^7
Opaque smooth, bright glaze.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 46.8%
Silica 20%
China Clay 2.5%
Whiting 8.3%
Gerstley Borate 13.7%
Zinc Oxide 4%
Dolmanite 6%

Transparent Gerstley Borate - Cone ^4
A clear fluid glaze.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 44%
Gerstley Borate 17.4%
Barium Carbonate 18.5%
Whiting 7.2%
China Clay 2.4%
Silica 10.5%

Lead Gerstley Borate - Cone ^4
At cone ^4 the glaze is very fluid and should be applied very thinly.
Tin gives a white, bright glaze that runs off high points.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Silica 7.2%
Oxfor Spar 52.9%
White Lead 19.4%
Dolomite 5.5%
Gerstley Borate 12.4%
Zinc Oxide 2.4%

Milky Gerstley Borate - Cone ^4
When thick it is opaque, smooth and bright with a tendancy to show blueish over red clay.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Barium Carbonate 6.4%
Zinc Oxide 3.2%
Gerstley Borate 20.6%
Whiting 1.5%
Oxford Spar 43.9%
Silica 24.7%
Clay 1.0%

Transparent Lead - Cone ^4
A clear bright glaze, excellent over engobes or when opacified with tin oxide.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 26%
Zinc Oxide 5.4%
Dolomite 3%
Whiting 8.3%
Oxford Spar 35.2%
Silica 21.4%
China Clay 3%

Transparent Gerstley Borate - Cone ^4
A smooth clear, fairly fluid glaze.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 53.8%
Barium Carbonate 9.1%
Talc 3.8%
Silica 2.2%
Gerstley Borate 25.2%
Clay 5.9%

Matt - Cone ^4
Rough, stony glaze. Applied thinly, it will reveal dark underslips.
Lead reduces very easily to a dark grey grunge.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
White Lead 27.5%
Dolomite 3.9%
Barium Carbonate 12.6%
Oxford Spar 7.4%
China Clay 11.5%
Silica 36.9%

Big Secret - Cone ^5
MINERAL BY VOLUME
EPK 25
Whiting 11.2 ---------------- for decorating 20
Frit 626 20
Silica 17.5 --------------- for decorating 12.5
Zircopax 4.5

ML 2A - Cone ^5
A good base for copper red.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Barium 39.4
Talc 96.5
Zinc 48.6
Gerstley Borate 103
Feldspar 226.4
Silica 132

LP Matt - Cone ^5
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lepldolite 183
Dolomite 36.8
Barium 29.5
Zinc Oxide 12.15
Silica 24

RFW - Cone ^5
MINERAL BY VOLUME
P.V. 150
Bentonite 150
Talc 18
EPK 20
Tin 20
Rutile 10

723 Matt (Parmlee) - Cone ^5
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Fritt 223 (Pemco 723) 395
Whiting 50
Zinc Oxide 20
Bentonite 40
C M C 40
Neph. Syenite 131.25
EPK 129
Titanium 15
Tin Oxide 15

L.A. Matt - Cone ^5
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Zinc Oxide 5
Whiting 10
Lead Carbonate 66
Feldspar 42
S10_2 9
White China Clay 30
Tin Oxide 2%
Rutile 2%

Kawai Creep - Cone ^5 to ^6
Pale Celadon grey-blue. Very fine iron break.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 6
Limestone 0.75
China Clay 0.45
Quartz 2.4
Rutile 2.0
Tin 3.0

UnNamed base - Cone ^5
2% iron = soft bluish celadon (yellowish if not completley reduced)
5% iron = medium brown.
1% cobalt plus 3% manganese and 8% iron = black (tends to run off if applied thick.)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 400
Whiting 60
Barium Carbonate 80
Zinc 160
Talc 20
EPK 50
Ball Clay 40
Silica 180

SP 35 Red - Cone ^5
A thick Celedon.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 262
Whiting 52
Zinc Oxide 8
Kaolin 47
Silica 59
Iron 8

L.A. Matt (for Engobes) Cone ^1 to ^5
3.2 Tin = opacifier - 3.2 Rutile = creamy color.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Lead Carbonate 66
Feldspar 42
EPK 30
Whiting 10
Zinc Oxide 5
Silica 9

Hardesty "D" - Cone ^5
Semi gloss.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 40
Whiting 6
Barium Carbonate 7.5
Zinc 2
Kaolin 5
Ball Clay 3.8
Silica 18.2

Hardesty - Cone ^5
Semi Matt.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Whiting 98
Talc 21
Barium Carbonate 110
Zinc 43
Feldspar 425
Kaolin 83
Ball Clay 80
Silica 140

Carlton Ball X Matt - Cone ^6
7% Tin Oxide = Warm White. - 4% Iron Oxide = mottled tan brown.
2% Iron Oxide + 5% yellow glaze stain = kacki.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 11.3
Whiting 12.9
Feldspar 15.6
Kaolin 18.4
Zinc Oxide 7.9
Silica 5.3
Neph. Syenite 27.5
Rutile 1.1

C. B. "A" Matt - Cone ^6
( 3% copper = speckled translucent grey. ) ( 6% Rutile = opaque satin creme. )
( 1/4% Cobalt + 2% manganese = palespeckled violet. ) ( 3% copper carbonate + 0.5% cobalt oxide = pale speckled green. )
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 33.2
White Lead 15
Dolomite 10.7
Whiting 5.9
Silica 5.0
Kaolin 14.7
Albany Slip clay 14
Granular Manganese 1.5

C. B. "V.A." Matt - Cone ^6
( 3% Copper Carbonate = Strong Green. ) ( 4% Iron Oxide = dark rust. ) ( 4% Manganese = dark violet brown. ) ( 7% Tin Oxide = dry white ) ( 2% Iron Oxide + 0.5% cobalt = grey-green. ) ( 2% Red Iron + 3.5% Tin Oxide = russet. ) ( 2% Tin Oxide + 2% manganese =charcoal black. )
MINERAL BY VOLUME
White Lead 44
Whiting 13.7
Feldspar 18.6
Kaolin 13.7
Silica 5.5
Tin Oxide 4.5

Kawal Celadon - ( Leach ) Cone ^6 to Cone ^8
Oxidized, this glaze is amber, with reduction it is pale green or bluish green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 61.3
Limestone 7.5
China Clay 4.9
Quartz 24.8
Iron Oxide 1.5

Leach Korean Celadon - Cone ^7 to Cone ^9
In oxidation this glaze is amber, in reduction it is a quiet grey-green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 25
Limestone 25
China Clay 6.5
Pikes Clay 20
Quartz 20
Calcined Ochre 2
Red Iron Oxide 1.5

Kenzan Celedon - Cone ^7
In oxidation this is amber, in reduction it is transparent olive-green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 62
Medium Ash 18
China Clay 12
Quartz 2
Calcined Ochre 6
Red Iron Oxide 0.12

Bouverie Slip - Cone ^7 to Cone ^10
A relatively colorless glaze, warm in oxidation and cold in reduction.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 40
Ash 40
Pike Clay 20

White Matt - Cone ^7 to Cone ^9
In oxidation this is a reserved opaque white, in reduction a snowy-grey.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 40
Braken Ash 40
Pike Clay 20

Manganese - Cone ^7 to Cone ^9
In oxidation this is anopaque coffee-brown, in reduction it is darker. It is good over celedon and rough bodies.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 38
Medium Ash 38
Pike Clay 19.2
Manganese Oxide 4.8

Sam Haile Variant - Cone ^7 to cone ^11
( Variants = Tin Oxide@6 or Copper Oxide@6 or Antimony Oxide@6 or Rutile@9. )
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 120
Whiting 60
Cornwall Stone 60
Kaolin 30
Calcined Kaolin 24
Zinc Oxide (variant) 15

Grey Semi-Opaque - Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 40
Whiting 10
Silica 20
Kaolin 10
Talc 20

Henry's Pinsky - Cone ^7
White, good with oxides.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 400
Whiting 60
Barium Carbonate 80
Zinc 160
Talc 20
EPK 50
Ball Clay 40
Silica 180

F. C. Ball - Cone ^7 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 43.4
Silica 28.1
Kaolin 10.3
Whiting 18.2

F. C. Ball RB - Cone ^7 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Custer Spar 25
Whiting 25
Kaolin 20
Silica 30

P 17 Celedon - Cone ^7 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 139
Whiting 70
Magnesium Carbonate 8
Kaolin 59
Silica 81
Iron Oxide 8

Celedon Cool Green - Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 78
Whiting 16
Silica 14
Iron Oxide 0.5
Barium Oxide 1.0

Sampson's Matt (Annie) - Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash 35
Dolomite 20
Whiting 3
Calcined Kaolin 24
Silica 19

Feldspar Glaze (Searle) - Cone^8
Only to be used for clay's firing at Cone ^8, otherwise the adhesion is bad.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 6 lbs
Silica 1 lb
Whiting 1.5 lbs

Hard Glaze - Cone ^8 to Cone ^9
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 10
Cornish Stone 10
Silica 3
Whiting 7

Merill Blue-White - Cone ^8 to Cone ^9
For Iron Blue, it should be decorated with a thin iron. ( 5% copper will give a sexy red. )
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 1080
Gerstley Borate 504
Zinc 192
Silica 850

Kaki Tenmoku - Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Buckner Spar 217 gms or 5.34
Whiting 35 gms or 0.87
China Clay 79.50 gms or 1.98
Red Iron Oxide 29 gms or 0.72
Wood Ash 10% of total or 1.90

Ordinary Stoneware (Leach) - Cone ^8
Colorless, warm in oxidation, cold in reduction.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar or or 60%
Medium Ash 20% or 30% or 30%
Limestone 10% or 0% or 10%

Limestone - Cone ^8
Differs from ordinary stoneware inasmuch as in reduction it becomes slightly milky.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
China Clay 10%
Limestone 20%
Quartz 30%
Feldspar 40%

Kawi Semi Matt - Cone ^8
In oxidation glaze is warm, in reduction it is cold and rather opaque.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 66.4%
Limestone 8%
China Clay 25.6%

Greenish Porcelaine - Cone ^8
This is a creme glaze in oxidation and a celedon greenish - white in reduction.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 25%
Bracken Ash 12%
Limestone 15%
China Clay 7%
Pike Clay 20%
Quartz 20
Red Iron Oxide 1%

Kawai Blue Ruli 9 ( LEACH ) - Cone ^6 to Cone ^9
Wash precipitated cobalt nitrate and add iron, clay or manganese to modify.
In oxidation the glaze is pale blue, in reduction it is blue.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 20%
Cone 8 Glaze 80%
Cobalt Nitrate 0.2%

Kawai Yellow ( LEACH ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^9
In oxidation this give yellow, in reduction grey to black.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 20%
Cone ^8 Glaze 78%
Yellow Uranium Oxide 2%

Copper Red Glaze ( LEACH ) Cone ^ 8 to Cone ^10
In oxidation this is green, in reduction red-purple.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 55%
Limestone 22%
Red Lead 4%
Quartz (Silica) 15%
Tin Oxide 4%

Kwai Lung Ch'uan ( LEACH ) Cone^8 to Cone ^10
Oxidized = Amber, Reduced = heavy dull green.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 78%
Limstone 6%
Quartz 14%
Red Iron Oxide 2%

Tea Dust ( LEACH ) - Cone ^9
Oxidized = Frosted opaque green, Reduced = Greener.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Raw Ochre 50%
Medium Ash 50%

Hamada Tessha ( LEACH ) - Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
Oxidized = varigated iron brown, Reduced = brown-black.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Cone ^8 Glaze 61%
Quartz 26%
Red Iron Oxide 13%

Hamada Tenmoko ( LEACH ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
Oxidized = heavy brown to black, Reduced = colder.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Cone ^8 Glaze 56%
Medium Ash 8%
Quartz 24%
Red Iron Oxide 12%

Bouverie Tesha & Kaki ( Leach ) Cone ^10
Oxidized = varigated lustrous iron-brown, Reduced = Colder.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 21
Limestone 16
Pike Clay 26
Quartz 26
Red Iron Oxide 12

Limestone ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
Shiny white/green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Limestone 2
Ball Clay 3

Fat White Ash ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornish Stone 9
Bard Ash 1

Celadon ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
Glassy grey-green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Limestone 1
Ball Clay 1
Feldspar 1

Batterless Crystalli Celadon ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Limestone 33
Ball Clay 33
Feldspar 33
Red Iron Oxide 1

Kaki (copper lustre) ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone^10
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Talc 2.5%
Cornish Stone 22.0%
Heated Ball Clay 9.5%
# 10 China Clay 2.5%
Whiting 1.0%
Darting Hall Ash 5.3%
Penlee Stone 57.0%

Kendall's Raw Glaze ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
White-green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Earth Red Clay 50%
Dartington Ash 50%

Ying China ( Leach ) Cone^8 to Cone ^10
White Fat Greenish, slightly shiny.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Whiting 24%
#10 China Clay 19%
Red Iron Oxide 1.5%
Feldspar 272D 12.5%
Quartz 12.5%
Talc 2.5%
Heated Ball Clay 6.0%
W6 Quartz 471 10%
Cornish Stone 12%

Dobai ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY PERCENT
#10 China Clay 35%
Whiting 13%
Quartz 10%
Feldspar 59.5%
Dartington Ash 14%

446 Glaze ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone ^10
White.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Talc 4
Cornish Stone 40
Heated Ball Clay 18
#10 China Clay 4
Whiting 2
Dartington Ash 10

Gerstley Borate 446 ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone^10
Three different values.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Talc 5% - 1 lb - 14 oz
Cornish Stone 49% - 12 lbs - 8 oz
Heated Ball Clay 22% - 5 lbs - 10 oz
#10 China Clay 5% - 1 lb - 4 oz
Whiting 3% - 0 - 10 oz
D T G Ash 11% - 3 lbs - 2 oz
Gerstley Borate 5% - 1 lb - 4 oz

Tenmoku T.T. ( Leach ) Cone ^8 to Cone^10
Two values.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Heated Ball Clay 5.5% - 3 lbs
#10 China Clay 10.5% - 6 lbs
Whiting (800) 10.5% - 6 lbs
W.G. Quartz (471) 21.5% - 12 lbs
Feldspar (272 D) 43.0% - 24 lbs
Red Iron Oxide 9.0% - 5 lbs

White Opaque ( Leach ) Cone ^9
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 84
Whiting or Marble 3.5
Silica 84
China Clay 26

Sanitary Ware ( Leach ) Cone ^9
Particularly efficacious for champer pots. Seven values.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 20 - 20 - 25 - 25 - 30 - 30 - 30
Silica 20 - 30 - 20 - 30 - 20 - 30 - 40
Clay 60 - 50 - 55 - 45 - 50 - 40 - 30

Cornwall Stone ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
When thickly applied gives a smooth opaque surface. Crazes over most clays, giving a similar effect to some old Chinese glazes.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornwall Stone 85
Whiting 115

Ash Glaze ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Stony Ash - A beautiful opaque stony Matt.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Mixed Hardwood Ash 35 %
Oxford Spar 35 %
China Clay 15 %
Talc 15 %

Satin Matt Ash ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Mixed Hardwood Ash 20 %
Dolomite 15 %
Silica 20 %
Oxford Spar 35 %
China Clay 10 %

(Red) Slip Glaze ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
In reduction gives a beautiful dark iron red. Thickly applied, it tends toward green and black.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Sadler Clay 60%
Cornwall Stone 25%
Iron Oxide 5%
Whiting 10%

Kaki Slip Glaze ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
A smooth Kaki glaze. In reduction tends toward iron red.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Sadler Clay 65%
Neph. Syenite 35%

Clear Glaze ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Due to the low Silica content it will craze over most clays. In reduction it will give excellent grey and celadon colors if iron is added.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 42.6
Silica 8.7%
Calcinated Clay 9.0%
China Clay 8.0%
Barium Carbonate 5.9%
Gerstley Borate 8.2%
Whiting 17.3%

Cornwall Stone II ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
A smooth bright glaze which is excellent for caladon and iron red colors in reduction.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Cornwall Stone 40.6%
China Clay 15.7%
Silica 26.7%
Dolomite 4.5%
Whiting 10.9%
Zinc Oxide 1.5%

Nephaline Syenite ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
A soft, smooth opaque satin matt.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 74.5%
Zinc Oxide 2.2%
Dolomite 4.9%
Whiting 2.7%
China Clay 6.9%
Silica 8.7%

Matt ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Very Dry and stony.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 33.6%
Dolomite 13.4%
Whiting 7.3%
Zinc Oxide 5.9%
China Clay 22.5%
Silica 17.4%

Rhodes Dry Matt with Kingman instead of Nephelene Syenite - Cone ^9 to Cone ^10
Flatt matt, good with oxides, best very heavy or very thin.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar (Feldspar) 115.4
Dolomite 35.7
Whiting 20.3
Zinc Oxide 17.0
Kaolin 84.5
Silica 16.5

Opaque Feldspathetic ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Smooth buttery nearly opaque glaze, but the high zinc content will affect some color adversely.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 47.4%
Silica 29.1%
China Clay 1.7%
Dolomite 6.2%
Zinc Oxide 5.8%
Whiting 10.1%

Gerstley Borate ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Semi opaque, tending to show a broken or streaked texture.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxfor Spar 39%
Silica 26.3%
Clay 4.3%
Magneseum Corbonate 3.2%
Berium Carbonate 8.7%
Gerstley Borate 6.8%
Whiting 11.6%

High Alumina Matt ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
A very opaque, smooth stony matt.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 48.9%
China Clay 25.1%
Dolomite 22.4%
Whiting 3.5%

Mamo Matt ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Add 6% tin oxide for orange.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Oxford Spar 50%
China Clay 25%
Dolomite 20%
Whiting 5%

AV CRI ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
A red glaze. Add 1% Copper, 1% Tin and 1% Ochre.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 115
Whiting 80
EPK 85
Gerstley Borate 50
Silica 134

Copper Red ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^12
Reduction
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kein Spar 530
Silica 170
Whiting 150
Florida Kaolin 60
Talc 40
Zinc Oxide 10
Copper Carbonate 3

RIV Fat Stoney White ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 1268
Whiting 400
Magneseum Zirconium Silicate 240
Zinc 78
EPK 223
Silica 4633

Black Reduction ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
Hamada version uses Kaolin 460.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 1647
Whiting 670
Zinc Oxide 81
China Clay 387
Silica 828
Red Iron Oxide 356

Lewis Peach Bloom ( Rhodes ) Cone ^9 to Cone^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 100
Gerstley Borate 62
Dolomite 46
Silica 151

From Dean Strawn, for red use 10% iron - for benmoku use 5% iron.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 190
Gerstley Borate 34
Whiting 5.6
EPK 4.0
Silica 14.7

Sang du Boeuf
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 40
Silica 40
Gerstley Borate 12
Whiting 18
Copper Carbonate 0.5
Tin Oxide 2
Bentonite 1

G/ Series Base ( P. Voulkos )
Add 4% iron oxide for mustard
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 2240
Neph. Syenite 1640
Whiting 600
Dolomite 360
Barium Carbonate 780
China Clay 520
Silica 240

R.T. Celedon ( reduction ).
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 11 1/4 lbs
Whiting 4 3/4 lbs
Ball Clay 3 3/8 lbs
Silica 7 1/8 lbs
Iron 9/16 lbs

Bracken Ash substitute
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Dolomite 250
Lepidolite 75
Bone Ash 42.5
Lincoln Fireclay 100

K Series Glaze
Add 5% Opax for White semi gloss
Add 5% Rutile, 15% Cobalt and 10% Ball Clay for Torquoise Matt.
Add 1 Chrome and 5% Rutile for Light GreyGreen with Brown
Add 0.1% Chrome and 17% Rutile for Light Pink with Iron Dark Brown
Add 5% Rutile for White when thick, Tan when thin.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 224
Calcium 50.6
Barium Carbonate 20.6
E.P.K. 20.6
Magnesium Carbonate 8.4
Silica 10.3

K Matte
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 224
Calcium
E.P.K. 20.6
Barium Carbonate 41
Magnesium 9.4

Alfred - Cone ^9 to Cone ^10
Good with all engobes, incl.copper.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 432
China Clay 42
Silica 141
Gerstley Borate 108
Dolomite 75
Talc 126

LIF ( Patterson ) - Cone ^9 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Talc 37.8
Zinc Oxide 48.6
Colomanite 76
Feldspar 167.6
Silica 104.8
Whiting 19.2
FMT 626 (Barium) 110.8
Bantonite 25.2
CMC 7.0

Dark Green Butter
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 100
Ball Clay 25
Gerstley Borate 15
Talc 5
Whiting 5
Iron 3

Montana Matt White
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 2000
Feldspar 520
Whiting 600
Dolomite 1100
Zinc 180
Kaolin 300
Silica 900

Rhodes Smooth
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornwall Stone 4060
Kaolin 1570
Silica 2670
Dolomite 450
Whiting 1000
Zinc 150

H. T. 51 Variation
In oxidation gives Olive Brown, in reduction gives Celedon green/brown.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 2780
Ball Clay 2037
Whiting 2000
Silica 3360
Red Iron 300

Liverpool - A white, glossy, semi opaque glaze.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 3000
Cornwall Stone 3000
Silica 900
Whiting 1000
Dolomite 1000
Kaolin 300
Tin 300

McKinnel's Celadon
MINERAL BY VOLUME
BaCO3 400
Silica 200
Kaolin 1100
Feldspar 5500
Dolomite 100
Iron 1% of total weight

K K Matt
Add rutile and iron if desired.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 2000
Whiting 1200
Calcined Kaolin 880
Raw Kaolin 200
Zinc 100

Yellow Green
More uniform color without Rutile.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 41%
Dolomite 12%
Whiting 7%
Ball Clay 7%
Silica 33%
Iron 3%
Rutile 1%

Dark Green
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 45%
Talc 7%
Dolomite 10%
Whiting 8%
Bentonite 3%
Silica 29%
Iron 10%

Golden Brown - Cone ^9 to Cone ^10
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 42%
Talc 14%
Dolomite 8%
Ball Clay 4%
Silica 20%
Gerstley Borate 12%
Iron 6%
Rutile 4%

Yellow Green - Cone ^9 to Cone ^10
Add 2% iron for light yellow green
Add 1% iron for yellow green
Add 1% lead chromate for yellow Green.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 36%
Dolomite 17%
Whiting 3%
Ball Clay 6%
Silica 36%
Zinc Oxide 2%

Blue Variants (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 1% nickle and 1% Delphinium blue for light blue grey.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 58%
Talc 6%
Whiting 9%
Bentonite 2%
Ball Clay 3%
Silica 10%
Prophyllite 12%

L P Matte - (Grey) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 30%
Dolomite 20%
Kaolin 25%
Barium Carbonate 15%
Silica 10
Cobalt 1%
Manganese 0.5%

Rhodes Black (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Albany Slip 75%
Neph. Syenite 15%
Barium Carbonate 10%
Cobalt 5%
Manganese Dioxide 1%

Brown White (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spodumene 20%
Spar 30%
Kaolin 25%
Dolomite 20%
Whiting 5%
Tin Oxide 6%

Parr's Sculpture Glaze (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite
Barium Carbonate 25%
Kaolin 3%
Borax 2%
Yellow Stain 10%

Markin's Matte (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 55%
Barium Carbonate 20%
Dolomite 5%
Kaolin 10%
Silica 10%
Iron 2%

Shaner Red (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kaolin 486
Spar 1022
Whiting 414
Talc 78
Bone Ash 200
Iron 80
Rutile 20

Shaner's Honey (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kaolin 10%
Spar 55%
Dolomite 5%
Silica 10%
Barium Carbonate 20%

Black Satin Matt (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Buckingham Spar 20%
F.4 Spar 20%
Whiting 2%
Dolomite 15%
Talc 13%
Ball Clay 10%
Silica 20%
Mason Black 3%
Manganese Dioxide 3%
Cobalt Oxide 5%

Yellow Brown Matt (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Apply thickly.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Whiting 4%
Dolomite 14.7%
Talc 18.1%
Cornwall Stone 26.7%
Neph. Cyenite 18.5%
Kaolin 2.6%
Calcined Kaolin 20%
Silica 3.8%
Rutile 4%
Iron 2%

D's Waxy Matt Base - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For blue = Base + 1% Copper Carbonate
For Yellow = Base + 4% Rutile
For Reddish Orange = Base + 2.5% Copper Carbonate
For Red Brown = Base + 5% Iron Oxide
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 40%
Whiting 15%
Talc 10%
Tin Oxide 10%
Kaolin 15%
Silica 10%

Stony Matt (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
(Melloy)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Dolomite 55
Whiting 10
Spar 167
Kaolin 77

Haystack Grey Satin Matt - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kaolin 25%
Spar 30%
Silica 15%
Whiting 15%
Talc 10%
Dolomite 5%
Rutile 5%

Red Orange Matt - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 144
Cornwall Stone 51
Whiting 51
Ball Clay 27
Calcined Kaolin 18
Zinc Oxide 9
Iron Oxide 18
Rutile 12

Shiny Blue-Orange Oatmeal - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Breakfast Special.
MINERAL BY Volume
Neph. Syenite 190.9
Silica 180
Dolomite 61.6
Whiting 41.5
Barium 37.8
Kaolin 10.7
Red Iron 2%
Rutile 5%

:Nicotom Occidental - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kaolin 3 lbs
Whiting 6 lbs 6 oz
Silica 4 lbs
Feldspar 12 lbs 12 oz
Neph. Synite 6 lbs 10 oz
Magnesium 1 lb 5 oz
Barium 3 lbs 4 oz

Glass Glaze - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
(Donna's Japanese)
For Green + 5% Copper Carbonate
For Purple + 2% to 3% Manganese
For Brown + 2% to 4% Iron
For Blue + 1% Cobalt.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 70
Powdered Glass 30
Kaolin 10

Torquoise Garasu - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
(Donna's Japanese)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Powdered Glass 30
Feldspar 40
Barium Carbonate 10
Lithium Carbonate 5
Copper Oxide or Copper Carbonate 1.5 or 2

1234 Limestone Base (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Base + 6% Titanium Oxide yields wild red & blue flashes.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kaolin 10%
Limestone 20%
Silica 30%
Feldspar 40%

Donna's Shino (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Opaque thick white fatty.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 60%
Limestone 10%
Silica 30%

Ivory Matte - Donna - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Prophyilite 30%
Limestone 25%
Feldspar 34
Silica 10%
Titanium Oxide 1%

White Matte - Donna's Japanese - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 50%
Barium Carbonate 20%
Kaolin 10%
Limestone 9%
Titanium 12%

Hank's Milky - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Grey buttery matt.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Neph. Syenite 30%
Whiting 15%
Talc 10%
E.P.K. 10%
Silica 35%

Hank's Matt - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
May add 1% to 10% iron if desired - Ochre to green when thick.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 50%
Barium 20%
Whiting 10%
Zinc 8%
Ball Clay 10%
Rutile 2%

Hank's Rock (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kingman Spar 50%
Whiting 25%
Spodumene 5%
E.P.K. 20%

Jo's Orblue - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 2% Copper Carb. for Blue
Add 5% Barium Chromate for Green
Add 2% Magneseum for Purple
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kingman Spar 30%
Neph. Syenite 10%
Barium 30%
Whiting 10%
E.P.K. 10%
Silica 10%

Dick's Straight - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 1/2% to 2% Copper gives Oranges and Yellows.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kingman Spar 43%
Barium 10%
Whiting 9%
Talc 2%
E.P.K. 16%
Silica 10%
Tin 1%
Zinc 7%

Bev's Rush - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Buttery, stony white
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Cornish Stone 50%
Whiting 30%
Spodumene 5%
E.P.K. 15%

Dave's Andpink - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Used for complicated drawing involving overglaze layers of glaze.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 109.1
Dolomite 13.3
Whiting 9.0
Talc 2.1
Barium 31.0
E.P.K. 8.3
Ball Clay 8.0
Silica 14.0
Tin 5.0
Zinc 4.3

Binn's Glossy - Annie - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Variation - Rutile 10 / Bentonite 3
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash Spar 40
Silica 30
Ball Clay 15
Whiting 30

Harlan Celadon (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For reduction use iron oxide=2 and borax= 4
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash Spar 47
Silica 11
Whiting 4
Zinc Oxide 3
Barium Carb. 25
Kaolin 12

Wild V C - Annie (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash Spar 18
Soda Spar 9
Silica 6
Kaolin 34
Dolomite 28
Whiting 5
Red Iron Oxide 3

White or Creme Matt - Annie - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash Spar White=45.5    Creme=48
Whiting White=22.3    Creme=16
Silica White=13    Creme=27
Kaolin White=12.7    Creme=5
Tin Oxide White=8.5    Creme=5

Garzio's Base - Annie (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Potash Spar 70%
Whiting 15%
Kaolin 15%

Annie's Agony ( Cone ^9 to Cone ^10 )
Add 4% Copper Carb. for vibrant medium green
Add 1/2% Cobalt Dioxide for grey blue mottled
Add 4% Manganese Dioxide for dark grey violet
Add 2% Copper Carbonate for medium blue green
Add 2 1/2% Iron Oxide for orange brown
Add 5% Iron Oxide for iron brown
Add 2% Manganese Dioxide and 1/2% Iron Oxide for deep rich brown
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 41.2
Barium Carbonate 32.0
Ball Clay 6.0
Silica 6.5
Rutile 8.2
Talc 6.0

Carleton Ball Plus (Annie ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For Torquoise add 2.7 Copper Carbonate
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 57.5
Barium Carbonate 26.5
Ball Clay 6.2
Silica 7.1
Lithium Carbide 2.7

Carleton Ball Minus ( Annie ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For Torquoise add 2 Copper Carbonate
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 50
Barium Carbonate 45
Lithium Carbonate 5

Carleton Ball Variable ( Annie ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For dark Turquoise add 3.0 Copper Carb.
For Mustard Yellow add 5.0 Red Iron Oxide
For Light Tan add 10.0 Rutile
For Pale Blue/Green add 1.5 Copper and 5.0 Rutile
For Green add 1.5 Copper Carb. and 2.0 Iron Oxide
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 56.0
Barium Carbonate 41.9
Ball Clay 1.4
Lithium Carb. 0.7

Talc Glaze Semi Matt ( Donna ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Silica 50
Feldspar 50
Talc 50
Kaolin 20

Carltone (Annie ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 4.0 Copper Carbonate for Torquoise Green or Black
Add 4.0 Manganese Dioxide for Charcoal Black
Add 5.0 Iron Oxide for Brown Orange
Add 3.0 Black Nickel Oxide for Warm Grey
Add 2.0 Copper Carb. and 2.5 Iron Oxide for Olive
Add 2.0 Copper Carb and 0.25 Cobalt Oxide for Green Blue
Add 5.0 Rutile and 0.25 Cobalt Oxide for mottled Blue & Tan
Add 2.5 Iron Oxide and 0.25 Cobalt Oxide for Greyed Blue/Green
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 37.4
Barium Carb. 29.1
Ball Clay 5.5
Silica 5.9
Talc 5.5
Rutile 7.5
Whiting 9.1

More Carleton's Balls (Annie ) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 4% Copper Carb. for Yellow
Add 4% Manganese Dioxide for Charcoal Black
Add 5% Rutile for dry Orange
Add 1/2% Black Cobalt Oxide for Brown
Add 1/4% Cobalt Oxide for mottled Blue & Brown
Add 4% Iron Oxide for Red Brown
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 43.7
Barium Carb. 34.3
Ball Clay 6.3
Rutile 8.8

Much C.B. Munchies (Annie) (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 1.0 Copper Carb. for Pink/Red.
Add 0.5 Cobalt Oxide for Blue.
Add 4.0 Manganese Dioxide for muddy Violet.
Add 2.0 Iron Oxide for vibrant Orange/Brown.
Add 2.0 Copper Carb. & 2.0 Manganese Dioxide for Blue/Violet.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 59.0
Barium Carbonate 27.0
Kaolin 6.2
Silica 7.3
Lithium Carb. 0.5

C. B. -- "and yet" (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 4.0 Copper Carb. for mottled Blue.
Add 5.0 Iron Oxide for Grey/Green Caledon.
Add 2.0 Copper Carb. & 5.0 Rutile for Blue/Green.
Add 0.5 Cobalt Oxide for Blue.
Add 10.0 Talc & 0.25 Copper Carb. for Pink matt.
Add 2.0 Copper Carb. & 2.5 Iron Oxide for Green.
Add 5.0 Rutile for mottled Grey/White.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Nepheline Syenite 48.1
Barium Carb. 37.3
Ball Clay 7.1
Silica 7.5

Glassy Green (Donna) (Oxidation) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 100
Limestone 50
Barium Carb. 8
Powdered Glass 135
Kaolin 23
Copper Carb. 13

Tourquoise Matt (Donna) (Oxidation) - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 80
Barium Carb. 20
Lithium Carb. 5
Kaolin 10
Copper Oxide 1.5

Cornwall (deJarnette)- cone^9
Add 4% Cobalt Oxide for Blue/Black.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 40
Whiting 20
Cornwall Stone 20
Zinc Oxide 3
Ball Clay 20

Plain Woo (deJarnette) - Dry Orange Matt - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 673.2
Neph. Syenite 184.8
Whiting 120.0
Kaolin 103.2
Barium Carb. 79.2
Rutile 84.0
Red Iron Oxide 60.0

R19 Tenmoku - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 10% Iron Oxide for Black
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 1620
E.P.K. 112
Silica 192
Whiting 446

Mustard Bronze Sem Gloss - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 112
Neph. Syenite 82
Whiting 30
Dolomite 18
Barium Carb. 39
Kaolin 26
Silica 12
Iron Oxide 16

R. 15 Red - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Over Tenmoku a fat White/Olive breaking glaze.
Add 2% Nickel for Green.
Add 5% Tin Oxide for White
Add 2% Iron for BlueGrey/Green.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Feldspar 126
Colemenite 30
Dolomite 23
Talc 44
Kaolin 12.9
Silica 60

Carl's Magic Red - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
( Iowa ) Only Red in presence of Carl Sandie
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Ash 44
Feldspar 35
Ochre 25

Copper Red - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Subtile nuances of Brown, Green and Red, dependent on thickness.
Add 1% Copper and 1% Tin and 1% Red Iron Oxide.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Zinc Oxide 8.1
Dolomite 9.2
Gerstley Borate 20.6
Whiting 35.0
Feldspar 207.2
Silica 102.0

Headley Base - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
(Iowa)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Nepheline Syenite 55
China Clay 15
Silica 10/15
Whiting 10/15

H. 2 Blue Yellow - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cobalt Carb. 0.5%
Rutile 0.5%
Ilmanite 0.2%

H.3 Blue - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cobalt Carb. 0.5%
Rutile 0.3%

H.4 YellowGreen to Brown - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Chromium Oxide 0.1%
Ilemenite 0.2%
Rutile 0.3%

H. 5 GreyBrown - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Nickel Oxide 0.1%
Rutile 0.3%

H. 6 Almost Green - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cobalt Carb. 1%
Rutile 5%

H. 7 More Green - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cobalt Carb. 1%
Rutile 5%
Ilemenite 5%

H-8 More Green (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add to Headley Base.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Chromium Oxide 1%
Rutile 7%

Tom Mason BIV - Blue Green with Brown specks - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 15 lbs - 4 1/2 oz
Dolomite 4 lbs - 15 oz
Whiting 3 lbs - 5 oz
Barium Carbonate 2 lbs - 10 oz
China Clay 14 oz
Silica 14 lbs - 6 oz
Bentonite 5 oz

Tom Mason TUBE - Blue Green with Black specks (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 80
Silica 65
Whiting 35
Kaolin 30
Titanium 22.5

Tom Mason No. One
Grey with heavy Rust specks. (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Syenite 65.7
Dolomite 12.4
Kentucky Ball Clay 4.1
Tin Oxide 6.6
Bentonite 2.5
Albany Slip 8.7

Tom Mason's Pink Sweet (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornwall stone 40
Jordan 40
Neph. Seyenite 32
Whiting 54
Silica 20
Calcined Kaolin 12
Rutile 10
Iron 2

Headley Try Something (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Try Ball clay sometime. Albany slip (15%) gives a smooth KAKI yellow.
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Kingman Spar 50
China Clay 30
Dolomite 5
Whiting 2
Silica 9
Kaolin 7

Headley straight White (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Neph. Seyenite 75
Zinc Oxide 2
Dolomite 5
Whiting 2
Silica 9
Kaolin 7

Headley Brown / Orange (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Moves at Cone 10. Rather brownish/orange depending on thickness.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 25
Albany slip 25
Kaolin 15
Cornwall Stone 12
Dolomite 7
Whiting 7
Rutile 2

Rodger's White (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For cone ^7 -^8 +40 buy volume Feldspar.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornwall Stone 160
Ball Clay 100
Silica 40
Whiting 80
Dolomite 20
Zircopax 48

Rodger's No. 2 Variable (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For green add 20 Iron
For blue add 1.5 Cobalt Carb
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 178.8
Dolomite 157.5
Gerstley Borate 30.9
Whiting 120
Georgia Kaolin 144
Silica 337.3

Alsog Matt - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^11)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Potash Spar 51
Barium Carbonate 21
Ball Clay 10
Whiting 8
Zinc Oxide 8
Rutile 2

McKinnell's Saturated Iron (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10) + 10% Iron Oxide
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 495
Whiting 186
Zinc Oxide 24.3
Georgia Kaolin 16.1
Silica 249

R.M."s Soft Smooth Grey (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Good iron spotting
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 400
Whiting 100
Barium Carb. 140
China Clay 140
Silica 220

R.M.'s Creamy Tan (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 6% Rutile
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Soda Spar 128.5
Tennessee Ball Clay 22.7
Gerstley Borate 36.1
Dolomite 23
Talc 44.1
Silica 59.9

R.M's Hershey Brown Cream (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Soda Spar 128.5
Tennessee Ball Clay 22.7
Gerstley Borate 36.1
Dolomite 23
Talc 44.1
Silica 59.9

Tenmokuse (Deanna) (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
For Red add 10% Iron
For Tenmoku add 6% Iron.
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Kingman Spar 190
Gerstley Borate 34
Whiting 5.6
E.P.K. 4
Silica 14.7

Red Plumb (Cone ^9 to Cone ^11)
Add 10% Iron Oxide to this formula
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Cornwall Stone 352.8
Dolomite 36.8
Zinc Oxide 8.0
Whiting 94.0
Ball Clay 113.6
Silica 230.4

Iron Saturated Variable (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Iron Rust when thin - Shiny Black when thick
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Whiting 13.0
Spar (Custer) 54.0
Barium Carbonate 2.5
Zinc Oxide 2.5
Silica 24.5
Kaolin 9.0
Red Iron 5.0

Green-Blue Watery (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 1% Iron for Pale Green
Add 1/2% Iron for Blue
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 28
Silica 34
Kaolin 3
Whiting 17
Talc 3
Barium 13
Dolomite 2

Deanna's Mustard (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 6% Iron after mixing
MINERAL BY VOLUME
Spar 39.6
Barium Carbonate 30.8
Kaolin 8.8
Silica 8.8
Dolomite 12.0

Iron Rust (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 10% Iron after mixing
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Keystone Spar 48
Dolomite 10
Whiting 2
Ball Clay 3
Silica 30
Gerstley Borate 5
Zinc Oxide 2

Cat Sick Brown-Green (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 3% Iron & 2% Rutile after mixing
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 42
Gerstley Borate 8
Dolomite 10
Talc 14
Ball Clay 8
Silica 18

Gold Spot - Dark Brown with Gold spots. (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 5% Iron & 4% Rutile after mixing
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Spar 42
Talc 14
Dolomite 8
Ball Clay 4
Silica 20
Gerstley Borate 12

TwoTone - (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Add 6% Iron & 4% Rutile for Yellow/Brown
Add 2% Iron for shiny Green
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Feldspar 48
Dolomite 10
Whiting 2
Ball Clay 3
Silica 30
Gerstley Borate 5
Zinc Oxide 2

David Leach's Ash (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
White and slightly buttery
MINERAL BY PERCENT
Talc 5
Cornish Stone 52
CL. Ball Clay 23
China Clay 5
Whiting 2.5
Mixed Ash 12.5

4 X Celedon (Cone ^9 to Cone ^10)
Good on porcelaine
MINERAL BY VOLUME
China Clay 26
Quartz 40
Cornish Stone 50
Whiting 50
Iron Oxide 5
T.S. Ball Clay 24

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